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Building of the Month - March 2014

The Changing Face of Memorials in Western Ireland

As markers of public memory, memorials are imbued with power and politics.  The treatment of memorials, especially during times of historical re-alignment, often echoes reactions against or a renewed nostalgia for a former system.  In recent decades, for instance, the overlap of monumentality and power can be witnessed by the iconoclasm following the fall of the Soviet Union.  Similar, sometimes violent reactions took place earlier in Ireland.  Nelson's Pillar, built in 1809 to commemorate Lord Admiral Horatio Nelson (1758-1805), stood towering over Dublin's city centre.  Seen as an imposing relic of the British Empire, the statue that topped the pillar was attacked twice: first in 1955 and again on the 8th of March, 1966, when the top half of the memorial was destroyed by a bomb.  Nelson's head, all that remains of the memorial, is now stored in the Dublin City Library and Archive.  In 2003, the Spire of Dublin, a signal of Irish progress and national aspirations, was built on the former site of the memorial.

Also suggestive of the intrinsic link between memorials and power is the forced migration of the neo-Baroque statue of Queen Victoria that was originally unveiled on the lawn of Dublin's Leinster House in 1908.  The Oireachtas bought the mansion in 1924 and, in 1929, the first attempt was made to move the former regent from her watchful position in front of the new Irish parliament.  The statue of Queen Victoria, the universal countenance of the British Empire, was quietly moved into storage in the Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, in 1947 and was eventually shipped to Australia in the 1980s where it now stands in a square in front of the refurbished Queen Victoria Building in Sydney.

The study of memorials such as these can show us how, not just what, we collectively remember.  Further, how memorials change over time, how they have evolved and what they have evolved into, can elucidate the place of public memory within the contemporary condition.  The following text will focus primarily on the transition of a single memorial form – the combination of Classical column, pedestal and statue – over time from the Imperial era to more recent years within counties Clare, Galway and Mayo in western Ireland.

Memorials in Western Ireland 01 - Glendenning Monument, Westport, County Mayo

Figure 1: The Glendenning Monument is situated in the centre of The Octagon in Westport.  It was first unveiled in 1845 in honour of George Glendenning (1770-1843), a country agent of the Bank of Ireland.  The monument, designed by Charles William Papworth of Dublin, was funded by local subscription.  The statue was heavily damaged during the Civil War (1922-3) by Free State troops and was taken down in 1943 after it was stripped of its gilding and other accoutrements.  Today, though the original name endures, a statue of Saint Patrick stands in Glendenning's place.  The monument remains a central, visual landmark towering over the heart of Westport.  Courtesy of Mayo County Library

In the middle of the nineteenth century, during the transitional socioeconomic shifts of industrialisation, memorials tended to be projected examples of model heroes and national icons.  Symbolic statues stood on tall pedestals high above the passerby.  In this way, public memory was not just centralised and officially sanctioned, but also a vigilant ideal to be constantly striven towards.  Examples of such memorials include the Glendenning Monument (1845) in Westport, County Mayo (fig. 1), and the O'Connell Monument (1867) in Ennis, County Clare (fig. 2).

Memorials in Western Ireland 02 - O'Connell Monument, Ennis, County Clare   Memorials in Western Ireland 03 - Manchester Martyrs Monument, Ennis, County Cla
     

Figure 2: The work of James Cahill (d. 1890) of Dublin, the monument, erected in 1867, comprises a twenty metre-tall Doric pillar topped by a limestone statue of Daniel "The Liberator" O'Connell (1775-1847).  Set on the site of a courthouse where O'Connell was declared MP for County Clare in 1828, the monument sits within a square on an eponymously named street in the centre of Ennis.  © National Library of Ireland courtesy of Clare County Library

  Figure 3: Also known as The Maid of Erin, the Manchester Martyrs' Monument, designed by Patrick J. O'Neill of Dublin, was erected in 1881 to honour the controversial hanging of three Fenians in Manchester in 1867.  The hangings, and local reaction to them, added to the political upheaval of the time.  Similar to the O'Connell Monument, the monument consists of a tall Doric pillar topped by a life-size female figure that personifies Ireland.  During the War of Independence (1919-21), the Black and Tans tried but failed to pull down the statue.  After opposition and debate, the monument was relocated to its present site: the middle of a busy roundabout at the junction of four roads near the River Fergus.  © National Library of Ireland courtesy of Clare County Library

Around the turn of the century, a noticeable shift began to occur within the column-pedestal-statue memorial typology.  While the statues may have often remained life-size, the height of the columns began to visibly shrink, less space separating the observer and the statue.  Examples of these lowered memorials include the Manchester Martyrs' Monument (1881) in Ennis (fig. 3) and the Humbert Memorial Monument (1898) in Ballina, County Mayo (figs. 4-5).

Memorials in Western Ireland 04 - Humbert Memorial Monument, Ballina, County May   Memorials in Western Ireland 05 - Humbert Memorial Monument, Ballina, County May
     
Figure 4: Much like the Manchester Martyrs' Monument, the Humbert Memorial Monument, erected in 1898 and unveiled by Maud Gonne MacBride (1866-1953), is topped by a statue of the Maid of Erin with sword in hand and Irish Wolfhound by her side.  Designed by Thomas Hammond Dennany (d. 1910) of Glasnevin, and 'erected by the voluntary subscriptions of the priests and people of Mayo and Sligo', the monument represents the military triumph over the English garrison at Ballina in 1798 by Irish and French forces under the command of General Jean Joseph Amable Humbert (1767-1823).  Courtesy of Mayo County Library   Figure 5: Again like the Manchester Martyrs' Monument, the Humbert Memorial Monument was removed from its prominent position in Pearse Street to a busy junction on Humbert Street.  The monument, re-erected on a shorter stepped plinth, was rededicated in 1987 by Seán MacBride (1904-88).  Photograph by the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage

 

Memorials in Western Ireland 06 - Joseph Howley Monument, Oranmore, County Galwa   Memorials in Western Ireland 07 - Liam Mellows Monument, Galway, County Galway
     
Figure 6: The monument, dedicated in 1947, commemorates Joseph Howley (d. 1920) who commanded a volunteer force in an effort to capture Oranmore Barracks in 1916 and was later murdered in Dublin during the War of Independence.  The life-size figure of Howley, reaching for the rifle at his side, is set on a short limestone plinth inscribed: 'COMMDt JOSEPH HOWLEY He led his volunteers in Easter Week 1916 & was murdered by English agents at the Broadstone Dublin 1920 Erected in 1947 by his Old Comrades of 1916-1920'.  Photograph by the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage   Figure 7: Erected in 1957, the monument to Liam Mellows (1892-1922), like the one commemorating Howley, consists of a limestone statue of Mellows in an Irish volunteer uniform on a short limestone plinth.  The monument is set on a median next to Eyre Square in the heart of Galway City.  Mellows, a military leader during the Easter Rising and Director of Supplies during the War of Independence, was elected to the First Dáil in 1918 and killed in 1922.  The architect of the monument was Diarmuid O Tuathail, the statue sculpted by Domhnall O Murchadha (1914-91).  Photograph by the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage

Following The Emergency, the space separating the observer and the statue on top of the Classical memorial became smaller still.  While remaining above the pedestrian, the Joseph Howley Monument (1947) in Oranmore, County Galway (fig. 6), and the Liam Mellows Monument (1957) in Galway City (fig. 7) are approximately 3-4 metres tall while the John F. Kennedy Monument, also in Galway, is even shorter, with a profile bust below a commemorative plaque approximately one metre off the ground (fig. 8).  Rather than positioning public memory as a singular, imposing construct, these memorials point to a slow transitioning into the complexities of everyday lived experience.

Memorials in Western Ireland 08 - John F Kennedy Monument, Galway, County Galway

Figure 8: In 1963, just five months before his assassination, President John F. Kennedy (1917-63) visited Ireland and stopped briefly in Galway on the 29th of June before leaving the country.  In 1965, the park in Eyre Square was renamed the John F. Kennedy Memorial Park.  Soon after, a monument with a central bronze profile cast from a wood carving by local sculptor Albert O'Toole (d. 2001) was placed within the park.  In 1975, the monument fell and was removed.  Subsequently replaced in the early 2000s, the new design suggestively rearranged the elements of the original monument: O'Toole's bronze was positioned below a commemorative text, which is tilted slightly to be read while looking down.  Photograph by Eduard Krakhmalnikov

Finally, the memorial has, in the last few decades, shrunk almost beyond recognition.  Often, instead of Classical forms, the memorial has become relegated to commemorative plaques, which, instead of a few large gestures, are numerous in number and are regularly placed at or below eye level.  For example, according to the plaque database in A Guide to Cork City's Historic Plaques and Signs, there are 180 plaques in Cork alone.  Sometimes, the memorial has even given up the ghost of a separate form and has simply become an inscription on the ground or wall.  In this way, public memory has become less above us and more among us.  Plaques and inscriptions, the offspring of the grand, triumphal memorials, are added to pre-existing structures that are thereby transformed into memorials while still retaining their unique functions.  One such example is the Eugene O'Curry Monument (1986) in Doonaha, County Clare (fig. 9).

Memorials in Western Ireland 09 - Eugene O'Curry Monument, Doonaha, County Clare

Figure 9: Two plaques were added in 1986 to a freestanding monolith associated with the restored Mangan Forge near Lisheenacrona.  The plaques, commemorating Eugene O'Curry (1794-1862), are embossed: 'Eoghan Ó Comhraide illustrious Gaelic scholar philologist and first Professor of Irish History at the Catholic University of Dublin is remembered here in his native place where the foundation of his great scholarship was laid'.  Photograph by Sonia Schorman courtesy of Clare County Library

The transition of the column-pedestal-statue memorial typology from above and beyond the scale and status of the observer to an existence amongst the experience of the pedestrian may point to a larger, gradual societal shift.  The grand commanding figure of the Imperial era has become an anachronism: Nelson's Pillar has long been destroyed; Queen Victoria has been shipped abroad; and Glendenning was replaced by Saint Patrick.  Indeed, this transformation of the memorial mimics the movement from Imperial foreign rule to a contemporary democratic society where public memory is inscribed all around us, instead of centralised within dominant markers.  As a result, the formal memorial has been disassembled and scattered into numerous commemorative plaques and inscriptions that, instead of stand-alone objects, are added on to pre-existing sites.  As seen in Cork, the intensive and seemingly constant accumulation of plaques and inscriptions suggests a contemporary condition in which public memory is fragmented and reflective of fluctuating micro-narratives consistent with an evolving democracy instead of a dominant, Imperial hierarchy.  It should be of note that the contemporary Spire of Dublin, three times the height of Nelson's Pillar, is not made of stone or marble.  Rather, it is covered with a reflective surface that mirrors our own image back onto ourselves, thereby transferring the power of projection onto the individual observer.  Yet, as with Classical monuments that tend to lose significance with the passing of time, the number and similarity of plaques and inscriptions may lead us to seek out new, more interactive memorial types in the future.  These future memorials may unglue themselves from form and place altogether, moving freely as stories and images through a hyper-reality no longer reliant on word of mouth.  Unlike the stiffness of Classical notions, the definition of what a memorial is or can be will invariably change.  As such, the conservation of future memorials, like the memorials themselves, will need to become a creative endeavour.

Eduard Krakhmalnikov recently completed an MS in Landscape Architecture and is currently completing an MS in Heritage Conservation and Preservation, both from the College of Design at the University of Minnesota in the United States.  His thesis in landscape architecture focuses on memorial and memorialisation through the lens of a derelict, inaccessible public park on Chicago's waterfront.  In the summer of 2012, he was the Inaugural Sally Boasberg Founder's Fellow at The Cultural Landscape Foundation in Washington DC.  This Building of the Month was completed in the summer of 2013 during an international exchange internship funded through US/ICOMOS

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